The article considers the development and work of the volost peasant cells of the RCP (b) in 1918–1920 through the relationship between the state and the people. The article is based on the archival materials from the Central State Archive of the Kirov Region and the State Archive of the Social and Political History of the Udmurt Republic, and on the historical-genetic and historical-institutional approaches. The author also analyzed materials from the funds of the Vyatka Gubkom and the Vyatka, Glazov, Kotelnich, Malmyzh, Nolin, Orlov, Soviet, Urzhum and Yaran regional committees of the RCP (b), Provincial Commission on the Party History, Vyatka Province Executive Committee of the Soviets of Workers’, Peasants’ and Red Army Deputies, Yaransk Regional Committees of the Workers’, Peasants’ and Red Army Deputies Councils, Vyatka Regional Statistical Committee, and the personal fund of Vasily Georgievich Plenkov. The author examines the development and crisis of the volost peasant cells of the RCP (b) in the Vyatka Province in 1918–1920 in order to identify the features of the Vyatka peasantry in the early 20th century and peasants’ expectations from the new power; of the interaction between the Soviet power and peasants; of the crisis of volost cells and their transformation into power structures consisting of the employees of the Soviet volost institutions. The study revealed that on the eve of the 1917 Revolution, the Vyatka village community still existed though middle peasants prevailed. Peasants expected from the new government to solve primarily social-economic tasks: the lack of land, construction of road infrastructure, and social development. Bolsheviks only partially satisfied the peasants’ demands, which led to the strongest peasants’ dissatisfaction under the forced food policy and other political measures, and, thus, determined the crisis of volost cells in 1919–1920. The author argues that in the village dominated by communist peasants who wanted to develop their economy on the market basis, there was hardly any ground for the voluntary acceptance of communist ideas. Volost peasant cells were created as associations supporting the new government, but eventually either disintegrated or turned into the ‘party of power’.
Vyatka Province, middle peasants, community, volost organizations of the RCP (b), war communism, crisis.
Yuri N. Timkin, PhD (History), Associate Professor, Department of Theory and History of State and Law, Vyatka State University. 610000 Kirov, Moskovskaya St., 36.
The article considers features of the Vyatka Province development and management, activities of the provincial statistical committee, and the role of political exiles and N.A. Spassky in its work. The author emphasizes that zemstvo in the Vyatka Province was of the ‘peasant’ type and conducted studies of the economic situation of solvent peasants. The author presents the results of the study of the Northern uyezds of the province by V.Y. Zavolzhsky, and of the further research of the peasant economy by the first ‘head of zemstvo statistics’ N.N. Romanov, and the role of two scholars in assessing the economic situation of the Vyatka Province population. The article introduces unpublished archival sources on the biography of N.N. Romanov into scientific circulation.
Vyatka Province, ‘peasant’ zemstvo, zemstvo statistics, peasant economy, zemstvo data, household research, V.Y. Zavolzhsky, N.N. Romanov
Savinova Tatyana A., PhD (Economics), Researcher, Chayanov Research Center, Moscow School of Social and Economic Sciences; Head of the Department of OrganizationalMethodological and Personnel Work, Russian State Archive of Economics. 119571 Moscow, Prosp. Vernadskogo, 82.