The article considers the development of the collective-farm trade in Krasnoyarsk under the Khrushchev’s reforms. Collective-farm markets played an important role in the Soviet society by improving the living standards of both urban and rural population of the Krasnoyarsk Region. On the one hand, such markets provided the urban population with agricultural food products; on the other hand, they provided the rural population with industrial products. Collective-farm markets were a way of rural urbanization; therefore, local authorities supported and developed collectivefarm trade in Krasnoyarsk, while Khrushchev’s reforms in agriculture had an opposite result. Failures of the virgin campaign, mistakes in the fodder provision and new taxes led to a sharp decline in agricultural production. The main blow to the collective-farm trade was the decree of March 6, 1956 “On the Statute of Agricultural Artel and Further Development of Collective Farmers’ Initiative in the Organization of Collective-Farm Production and Management of Artels’ which was the start of the struggle against homestead farms. Thus, despite the efforts of local authorities, the collective-farm trade was decreasing: in 1955, its share in the commodity turnover was 14,9%, in 1957—9,8%, and in 1966, it decreased by half compared to 1955.
Collective-farm markets, market trade, urban consumption, standard of living, urban and rural population, Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarsk Region.
Gonina Natalia V., PhD (History), Senior Researcher, Sector of Agrarian and Demographic History, Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 630090 Novosibirsk, Nikolaeva St., 8.
Pavlyukevich Ruslan V., PhD (History), Associate Professor, Department of History and Political Science, Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University. 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Lenina St., 117.
The article considers the impact of Khrushchev’s reforms on the dynamics of the number of the able-bodied population in rural areas of the Krasnoyarsk Region. During the period under consideration, there were two contradictory trends in the Krasnoyarsk Region. On the one hand, under the virgin-land campaign, there was an inflow of immigrants from other regions of the Soviet Union. According to some researchers, this planned wave of immigrants significantly improved the situation in the Krasnoyarsk Region agriculture and partially solved the problem of shortage of workers, which was determined by the campaign for the introduction of virgin and fallow lands into agricultural circulation. On the other hand, urbanization continued, including the large-scale industrial development of the region, which needed an inflow of the able-bodied population to its cities. As in other regions of the country, the main donor of the able-bodied population for the industry was the village. Thus, Khrushchev’s transformations determined a paradoxical situation: the village was receiving new labor resources and at the same time was losing population that moved to the cities with the industrial facilities. The inflow of new population into the village could not compensate for the loss of labor resources in agriculture.
labor resources, modernization, rural population, urban population, Krasnoyarsk Region, N.S. Khrushchev’s reforms
Pavlyukevich Ruslan V., PhD (History), Associate Professor, Department of History and Political Sciences, Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University. 660012, Krasnoyarsk, Semaphornaya St., 189a.
Vasyutin Ivan A., Master's Student, Department of General History, Siberian Federal University. 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny Pr., 79.