Ecovillages are forms of the ideological community that aims at providing a group of people with an environmentally friendly space for living together. Some kind of the contemporary estate is the most widespread type of ecovillages in Russia. The author considers the key factors affecting the development of such ecovillages and its main stages. The study confirmed the author’s assumption about the certain stages in the ecovillage development and about the factors of its success. In general, villagers have to follow several rules that ensure the successful group dynamics. First, to select members of the settlement very carefully, because this choice has an important impact not only on the economy (experienced settlers understand what resources a person lacks for the development of his estate) but also on communications. Second, to formalize the economic interaction as fast as possible: to ensure a clear process of voting for initiatives and to choose an initiative group responsible for fundraising. Third, to be ready for disappointments and departures of members whose expectations were not met. Fourth, at the first stages of the ecovillage development, to try to implement as many projects as possible in order to unite people and form mini-groups for the comfortable interaction of ecovillagers.
Ecovillages, settlements of estates, anastasians, social structure of rural communities, local communities, ruralization, rural life, group dynamics, psychology.
Kuznetsova Elizaveta V., Analyst, Design-Training Laboratory for Municipal Administration, National Research University Higher School of Economics. 101000, Moscow, Myasnitskaya St., 20.
The article presents the life trajectories of representatives of those national groups that became active rural entrepreneurs in the North-West Region of Russia at different times. Unfortunately, we have not yet considered the national-ethnic aspect of rural entrepreneurship in our research projects (see, e.g.: Bozhkov, 2019; Bozhkov, Ignatova, 2015; 2017; Bozhkov, Trotsuk, 2018; Ignatova, 2016). The article focuses on various problems that the migrants from different former republics of the Soviet Union face in the zones of risky Russian agriculture. The empirical basis of the article is the data (transcripts of interviews and field observations) of sociological expeditions supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research in 2005–2008 and 2018–2019. The four ‘cases’ confirm the hypothesis that, regardless of the migration-generational trajectory and activities in the Russian countryside, all entrepreneurs face the same problems (labor shortage, abandoned production facilities and dilapidated social infrastructure, expensive loans and harsh tax and administrative pressure ‘from above’—despite the declarative-nominal support of the state, the general atmosphere of social distrust, the lack of traditions and skills of real cooperation, and so on). There is some specificity of such problems; however, it is determined not by the national-ethnic factor, but rather by the reaction of the traditional rural community to ‘outsiders’ who bring their own rules and disrupt the routine of local life (with its unemployment, impoverishment, desolation and alcoholism).
migration, nationality, rural entrepreneurs, northern Non-Black-Earth Region, local communities, cooperation, government support
Bozhkov Oleg B., Senior Researcher, Sociological Institute — a branch of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 7th Krasnoarmeyskaya St., 25/14, Saint Petersburg, 190005.
Trotsuk Irina V., DSc (Sociology), Professor, Sociology Chair, RUDN University; Senior Researcher, Center for Agrarian Studies, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. Prosp. Vernadskogo, 82, Moscow, Russia, 119571.